Bullying may be seen as the systematic abuse of power where intentional harm or aggressive behaviour is carried out repeatedly but basically on account of an actual or perceived imbalance of power between the bully and the bullied. There are various other theories and positions surrounding the ‘hows’ and ‘whys’ of bullying, with insights from the field of psychology attempting to explain bullying through developmental, evolutionary, societal, and numerous other academic perspectives. However, it is arguably more useful to recognise the following as types of bullying:
- Verbal: Teasing, Name-calling, inappropriate sexual comments, taunting, threatening to cause harm, etc.
- Social/relational: Hurting someone’s reputation or relationships, leaving someone out on purpose, asking others not to be friends with someone, spreading rumours about someone, embarrassing someone in public.
- Physical: Hurting a person’s body or possessions, hitting/kicking/pinching, spitting, tripping/pushing, taking or breaking someone’s belongings, making rude hand gestures.
Another form of bullying is Cyber bullying. With increasing access to digital devices and a greater social media presence, cyber bullying in India has experienced a correlational increase. Indeed, 90% of cyber stalking victims in India are women, but it is suggested that the actual cases of cyber bullying may be much higher than those reported.